Article published on Jan. 11, 2009
community published
Article published on Jan. 11, 2009
People had been running after for new inventions since the begging of human’s life. Creating a new invention in order to meet unsatisfied needs of people or to complete the a miss part of old version of these inventions was the reason of new researches. These inventions have been occurring through the many topics such as philosophical, sensual, scientifically or technological from many years.
Because of human beings always look for the best solutions and outputs this invention-seeking process seems to continue in the future as well. ’Since 18th century Europe countries live under the light of rationalism but this ideology was not enough for the needs at that times’ according to Morgenthau. He also mention that some ideologies were not enough the protect the demolition of WWI such as liberalism, socialism and communisms. He also completed the miss points of fascism. Furthermore Waltz tried to improve and completed the missing or wrong thinking’s of Morgenthau as himself. These thinking’s was the ideology of realism. Realism was the main ideology at that time with its types. The traditional and structural realism. Traditional realism was founded by Morgenthau, and the structural realism founded by Waltz. Since the 1960’s under Shah Iran have been running after new programme by using the technology and its entire source to the world. It calls ‘Iran Nuclear Programme’. It is also know crisis between Usa-Iran. I will mention on the the best solutions for the current nuclear crisis from the Waltz perspective because his ideas are much more expectable than the Morgenthau. I will also tell the reasons of why the Morgenthau can not explain better this case.

Generating electricity without dipping into the oil supply to sell abroad is the aim of Iran Nuclear programme as Iran’s leadership. Waltz believes the importance of power. For this reason Iran wants to improve its nuclear power. But there is miss understanding from the perspective of USA and from most of Western countries. First of all USA and most of countries supported and helped the Iran for this programme. After the regime changed in Iran they have not been support the action of Iran. Because western countries and USA believed that Iran would produce a nuclear weapon and nuclear bomb. This is not true according the Iran. As the president Mahmoud Ahmedinejad of Iran; ‘Atomic Bomb not useful and reject in international relations. If it was useful, it would protect to diffusion of SSCB or it could solve Americans’ problem that live in Iran. The term of bomb ended’ and also emphasize that Iran Nuclear Programme is not for military, it’s for civil people but Bush administration is worried about this situation. There can not be argue of some countries power such as Russia and China from the perspective of technology and from the most of part. One of most powerful state is the USA. Like all powerful states, they wish to protect their power. Protecting your own power is important for Waltz. Moreover he mention that ‘the actors could change in order to have the power but the unchanged thing is only the maintaining the position which you already have ’. If we look the Iran case; Iran’s Nuclear program made USA think of its own existing power. Growing actions in the Iran create anxious of USA. Because of this reason they tried to solve this problem by using diplomacy which is mean according to Waltz ‘Balancing the power’ because it gives advantage for USA. War becomes the last action for the states while the Cold War. Possibility the war is less because such as USA, Soviet Union and China had own their great powers ensued prudent a structure at the foreign politics and living profit defined for sure and there are nuclear weapons. Furthermore, as Waltz nuclear weapon’s value was more expensive so using the nuclear weapon was difficult. Because of this reason it provided to peace between great powers which have a nuclear weapon have responsible. More better is that they interact closely because Waltz believe that ‘actions separately taken strongly affect the pair, or the trio, whether or not there are relations to observe and transactions to count (1)’

The basic principle of international system and still the important is the balancing of power and anarchy according to Waltz. Maximizing the power is not important in the anarchic system. Anymore, if there is a balance of power there is no anarchy. The important thing is to protect the system’s position. Because of this reason ‘power is a means it is not aim, not an end’. So you have to make deal with other country for balance of power. This state should not be more powerful than your state. If it is more powerful than your state you can not protect your power and than balance of power could come to end. States has to deterrence power. These are very important in the international system according to Waltz. Because of Iran has deterrence power even though USA is much more powerful than Iran, they can not attack the Iran. Because there is competition of weapons in the system and also between two states. The Cuba Missile Criss can give an example at that point from the earlier years. USA and Soviet Union could not attack each other even though they have nuclear weapons. They deterrence each other with weapons. The distribution of capacity was the equal between two states. The structure did not let share power with others. This situation is the same in Iran case. Iran and USA have equal capacity as we mentioned that the system is anarchic in the international area as Waltz and realist. If the intensity less and if there is an equality distribution of capacities is increase the stability in the system according the Waltz. Balance of power is the main and indispensable element of system so USA and Iran should make deal with Iran because of increase the stability for the international system. Both state has to revision the opportunities in a peaceful way its way of with balancing the powers.

‘Political structure bases on system not on actor.’ According the Waltz. A crazy man and his interests not important for Waltz in the international relations. Because there is a system and states go trough the system. The system is build by structures which are close each other and that is determines that how you play in international relations. The system is similar with market. There is anarchic structure and there are companies. Because of many companies competition is inevitable like in the international relations. They spend all of their efforts to maximize their profits. States are in the same situation. They want to maximize their profits as well. Some of countries face with distraction. Some of them try to not for the distraction. If we look for the structure and try to act its rules, we could minimize the conflicts between nations. For example; Iran’s nuclear program we could understand the both of part that why Iran want to develop this programme. For USA part we could understand that changing of its behaviors after the political changes in Iran. USA and Iran have rights according to Waltz argument. But again both sides want to gain their wishes .Both of sides begun to game without any chance of the loser part so actors do not important, the important is the system’s structure because ‘The actors could change but the anarchic structure is never change and the anarchy is still continue’ and ‘rules and the structure of international relations is not thing that can be change by actors’ according to Waltz.

The father of traditional realism is Morgenthau mentioned about power so much more than Waltz. He explains this case with the power of the weakness from the view of Iran. Iran was weak in front of USA but it is trying to improve his nuclear power under the nuclear programme. According to he ; ‘ the war is inevitable ’. But the domestic politics is so effective for international relations. America could be more different but its domestic politics made them prefer to choose much more diplomatic way -balance of power- rather than bloody.

The system was the important for Waltz. According the Morgenthau the actors are more important than system in international relations because of human nature. The actors has to responsible not just with the protect of their honor. They have also responsible for the survival of their state. From the perspective of survival of country can be true but It is not true according to Waltz because human nature can change but they system does not change. Because of this reason Morgentahau can not explain the Iran Nuclear programme very well because the programme is the necessity of system not the necessity of actors or leaders. the actors can be change in time. USA and Iran now the power but what about tomorrow? Tomorrow, another strong country will afraid from the threat of someone else as the still the system remains as it is. The human nature should not be that minimize the conflicts in terms of international relations system. Because of these reasons Waltz’s ideas are much more expectable for Iran Nuclear Program. The historical process shows us that how the system and the structure are so important. Finally but not the end point is the ‘Iran Nuclear Conflict’ is still continuing and it shows that it will go on many years because sides wants more powerful than each other’s wish to be the leader of Middle East but Iran does not want to give change to USA. After the Obama is elected as a president of USA,he had his speeches about Iran Programme and it was the same with Bush. He had his last speech as we see from here the actor changed but because of system structure did not change sides can not do anything. The president of USA Barrack Obama warned to the global leaders and also the President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to ‘stop Iran from enriching uranium and acquiring nuclear weapons’ 2 and mentioned to his threatened from the regime as he say the Iranian ‘regime is threat to all of us ’ 3 At the same time Russia began to help with the selling the surface air missiles to Iran to defense the attacks that will come from Israel and Usa for the nuclear buildings in Iran.4 It seems that in the international system between states the inevatible weaknes of mightiness; and the powerful of weaknesses will continue for many years because of a nature of system and its structure.



-INDEX- (1): Kenneth N.Waltz: ‘Reductionist and systematic theories-page 54 (2),CST-NWS-OBAMA03.article (3),CST-NWS-OBAMA03.article (4)